For example, Nebeling and Norrie have applied them to adaptation of Web pages. The goal is to support developers in specifying Web interfaces that can adapt to the range and increased diversity of devices. For this purpose they have introduced a tool that augments Web pages to allow users to customize the layout of Web pages for specific devices. Devices are classified in terms of window size, screen resolution, and orientation. It is then possible to share adaptations so that others with the same device and with similar preferences can directly benefit.
The same group Nebeling et al, has developed a tool, W3Touch, whose purpose is to support adaptation for touch according to metrics. The tool produces analytics of the user interaction in order to help designers detect and locate potential design problems for mobile touch devices. For this purpose two metrics are considered: Missed links ratio, which keeps track of how often touches miss an intended target; and Zoom level, which considers how much users on average need to zoom into different components of the Web interface.
Another important aspect to consider is how to evaluate adaptation. For this purpose in Manca et al.
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Vocal interfaces can play an important role in various contexts: Examples of possible applications are booking services, airline information, weather information, telephone list, news. However, vocal interactive applications have specific features that make them different from graphical user interfaces. They are linear and non-persistent, while graphical interfaces support concurrent interactions and are persistent.
The advantage of vocal interfaces is that they can be fast and natural for some operations. Recently there has been increasing interest in vocal interfaces since vocal technology is improving. It is becoming more robust and immediate, without need for long training, and thus various its applications have been proposed in the mass market, e.
This has been made possible by providing the possibility of entering vocal input with audio stored locally and then sent to the server for speech recognition. Vocal menu-based navigation must be carefully designed: Although the logical structure of a graphical page is a tree, its depth and width are too large for vocal browsing. Figure 13 shows an example of a graphical user interface and represents its logical structure by using polygons with solid borders to indicate the main areas, and then dashed borders to indicate sub-areas inside them.
Logical structure of a graphical user interface. Figure 14 shows on the left a corresponding vocal menu automatically derived according to an algorithm Paterno and Sisti, in which the texts of the vocal menu items are derived either from elements id or from the section contents.
Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices
On the right of Figure 14 there is an example of vocal dialogue that can be obtained from such a vocal interface. Vocal version of the example user interface. Multimodality concerns the identification of the most effective combination of various interaction modalities. In Manca et al. In the case of interaction elements, it is possible to decompose them further into three parts: In this approach equivalence can be applied only to the input elements since only with them the user can choose which element to enter, while redundancy can be applied to prompt and feedback but not to input since once an input is entered through a modality it does not make sense to enter it also through another modality.
Figure 15 shows a general architecture for supporting adaptive multimodal user interfaces. There is a context manager able to detect events related to the user, technology, environment and social aspects. Then, the adaptation engine receives the descriptions of the user interface and the possible adaptation rules. The descriptions of the user interfaces can be obtained through authoring environments at design time or generated automatically through reverse engineering tools at run-time.
When events associated with any adaptation rule occur, then the corresponding action part should be executed. For this purpose three options are possible:. A general architecture for multimodal adaptation. It is now possible to obtain multimodal applications also in the Web. However, such language is no longer supported by current browsers. This implementation is still not possible for Chrome mobile version. In first empirical tests associated with this solution for context-dependent multimodal adaptation the results are encouraging.
User feedback pointed out that users like to have control on modality distribution for supporting personal preferences. It also turned out that the choice of the modalities should take into account the tasks to support, beyond the current context of use, for example showing long query results is something inherently preferable to present graphically since the vocal modality is not persistent and when the last results are presented vocally the user may have forgotten the initial ones.
Another aspect is that mixing modalities at the granularity of parts of single UI elements is not always considered appropriate; for example, in considering a single text field which has to be selected graphically, it is not perceived meaningful then to ask to enter the value vocally. Distributed UIs and migratory UIs are two independent concepts, indeed there may exist distributed UIs which are also able to migrate, but there are also only distributed user interfaces which do not migrate at all , or migratory UIs that are not distributed across multiple devices.
Multi-device support is emerging in various environments.
OS X Lion Resume footnote 3 provides a 'Resume' feature, which lets users pick up where they left off their applications, along with their user interfaces. Chrome-to-phone footnote 4 enables users to send links from their Chrome desktop browser to App on their Android device. Firefox footnote 6 synchronizes bookmarks, tabs , and web history between desktop and mobile Firefox clients. At research level, Myngle Sohn et al. When considering specifically distributed user interfaces, it is important to note that there are three types of information important to specify Frosini et al.
An example of distribution obtained through dynamic customization tools is presented in Manca and Paterno When the application is generated it is still possible for the end user to customise its distribution across various devices through an interactive tool in order to address needs not foreseen at design time. Figure 16 shows an example: Example of dynamic user interface distribution. One of the main sources of frustration in current ubiquitous environments is that users need to restart their applications for each device change.
In order to exploit the current technological offer there is a need for continuous access to interactive services across various devices. Various approaches to their implementation have been investigated pixel replication, interactive applications, virtual machines, etc. Several application domains can benefit from them such as shopping, online auctions, games, making reservations.
They are characterised by the ability to preserve the state of the interactive part which can include user input, focus elements, cookies, sessions, history bookmarks, etc. An example of a solution supporting migratory user interfaces is DeepShot Chang and Li, It identifies the application that the user is looking through the camera, recovers its state, and migrates it onto the mobile phone, with the information on the state encoded as URI.
A video is available at. Their detailed description is given in a book on Migratory Interactive Applications in Ubiquitous Environments http: One such solutions has focused on an environment supporting migration of Web pages. This is obtained through a proxy server able to inject scripts that introduce the possibility to send the DOM of the page and its current state when migration is triggered through a migration client, which is a separate Web application able to communicate with the migration server and the applications.
There are some specific aspects that characterise usability in such environments.
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They are related to continuity, such as time required by the migration process from the trigger on source device to the user interface presentation on target device. The transition should be understandable by users, in the sense that users should be able to understand that a migration is taking place. The adaptation result should not make it difficult for the user to understand how to proceed. Another important aspect is predictability: In order to make the migration environments more flexible we can introduce the possibility of partial migration in which the users interactively select the parts that they want to migrate to the target devices.
This can be useful, for example, in desktop-to-mobile migration if users want to limit the parts to migrate in order to avoid overloading the limited screen of the target device.
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In Ghiani et al. A video illustrating this scenario is available at http: This type of environment can raise a number of privacy issues that need to be addressed by providing users with control on whether each device is visible to others, whether the pages navigated on a device can be detectable by others, and whether a device can be a target of a migration. Such possibilities can be assigned only to specific users or groups of users. Further issues can be generated in terms of security, including theft of private information from the migrated UIs, such as data entered by users credit card, password, etc.
Other risks can be due to impersonating the user through authentication attack. Some of such issues can be addressed by automatically analysing the elements in the interactive forms in order to identify whether they can contain confidential data and, in this case, to handle their content in the migration process by using secure protocols, even if they were not used in the original application.
To summarise, we can say that a variety of solutions have been developed to better exploit multi-device environments. It can be useful to have a set of logical dimensions that allow designers and developers to compare them. A set of such dimensions along with some values that can be useful to differentiate them is provided by Paterno and Santoro and are:.
Of course, we are still far from having solved all the interesting issues that characterise multi-device environments. There are various aspects that deserve further investigation, such as integrated support for adaptation to a variety of Post-WIMP interaction techniques or more general solutions for preserving the functionality state in migration. Both migration from multiple devices to multiple devices and crowd-sourced adaptation have received limited attention so far. EUD environments for context-dependent applications need more effective metaphors and solutions and there is still a lack of general solutions to exploit peer-to-peer communication in distributed and migratory user interfaces.
Arthur , Richard and Jr. Automatic reverse engineering of interactive dynamic web applications to support adaptation across platforms. Efficient web browsing on handheld devices using page and form summarization. Chang , Tsung-Hsiang and Li , Yang Gajos , Krzysztof Z.
Automatically generating personalized user interfaces with Supple. In Artificial Intelligence , 12 pp. In Interactions , 19 2 pp. Interactive customization of ubiquitous Web applications. Push and pull of web user interfaces in multi-device environments. Security in migratory interactive web applications. Send us a new image. Is this product missing categories? Checkout Your Cart Price.
Migratory Interactive Applications for Ubiquitous Environments
Description Details Customer Reviews Ubiquitous environments are important because they allow users to move about freely and continue the interaction with the available applications through a variety of interactive devices including cell phones, PDA's, desktop computers, digital television sets, and intelligent watches. A frustrating limitation is that people have to start their session over again from the beginning at each interaction device change.
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