Guide The Body The Flesh (The Word of God Encylopedia Book 6)

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The flesh is mortal 2 Cor 4: It can never be more than it is. The flesh gives rise to pride when one glories in the externals related to it Phil 3: The flesh is unavailing and ineffectual when it comes to spiritual warfare 2 Cor In none of this is there necessarily sin, but the weakness of the flesh is that it cannot, in its present state, fight off temptations and lusts and therefore is the place where sin may make its malevolent entrance into human lives.

In this category a negative moral judgment is made. Here the term is used to define the lost condition of man before the life-giving Spirit of God makes His entrance. A lost man is in the flesh and dominated by sin, thus the ideas of sin and flesh may blend together. The flesh becomes the baser side of man defining either the impulse to sin itself or at least the seat of it Rom 7: Hence one may have a fleshly body Col 2: Here too Paul is careful to say that the Christian is not dominated by the flesh.

Just as the believer is not in the flesh Rom 8: In this connection it is significant that Paul nowhere says the flesh will be resurrected; for him it is the body that will be raised to newness of life see e. What is the connection between the conception of flesh as an earthly substance and flesh as debased?

The link seems to be sin. Flesh is not sinful per se , as made by God, but now, as fallen, the flesh is sinful because all men are de facto sinners. He was certainly well-instructed in philosophy and made use of it as an ancillary to the exposition and harmonization of scripture. This was the task that he undertook in most of his extant writings, and the more systematic theology is founded on the ecclesiastical doctrines of the Trinity, the incarnation, salvation after death and the inerrancy of scripture.

The Father, or first person, is nevertheless the only one who is autotheos , God in the fullest sense, whereas the Son is his dunamis or power and the Spirit a dependent being, operative only in the elect. All three are eternal and incorporeal, the Son being known as Wisdom in relation to the Father and Logos reason, word in relation to the world. In this capacity he is the shepherd of rational beings the logikoi , who, according to his later critics, were said in his lost writings to have been in origin incorporeal beings coeval with the world if not eternal, and currently imprisoned in material bodies only because of a cooling in their love.

It is not so easy to demonstrate from his extant works that he held the material world in such contempt, though he certainly holds it to be created out of nothing and suspects that the concept of matter is philosophically redundant. Souls, in his view, are sent down into bodies perhaps never more than once, though again some critics impute to him a doctrine of transmigration or chronic falling away from bliss.

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The soul remains indefeasibly free in its choices, and the misuse of this freedom is the cause of its captivity to the devil. The deliverance of the soul is effected by the incarnation of the Logos, or second person of the Trinity, who assumes real body but remains fully God.

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His death on the Cross is a ransom to the devil, and his resurrection prefigures that of the saints, though he seems to imagine the body after death, in Platonic terms, as a tenuous vehicle of the soul. Scholars differ as to whether he envisages a final absorption of the body into incorporeal spirit. While he thinks it possible that some may be too debauched by their sins to repent, he also opines that the devil himself will at last make peace with God, though he cannot attain beatitude.

In the present life, an anticipation of bliss in the presence of Christ can be enjoyed by the exegete who has fully mastered the spiritual meaning of the scriptures. These are the word of God to us because Christ the word is ubiquitously present in them, investing them with a threefold sense as he himself assumed body, soul and spirit for our sake in his sojourn on earth.

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  6. Eusebius records the jibe of the Neoplatonist Porphyry that Origen, though a Greek by education, became a Christian, whereas his philosophy teacher Ammonius, having once been a Christian, converted to a more lawful way of life Church History 6. For further information see Edwards Eusebius, moreover, asserts that that both Origen and his teacher were Christians throughout their lives 6.

    His mother could curb his enthusiasm only by hiding his clothes so that he was ashamed to leave the house 6. Eusebius also tells us that his sexual diffidence or his ascetic temper induced Origen to make himself literally a eunuch for the kingdom of heaven 6. He appears to have studied Hebrew with a converted Jew First Principles 1.


    Of these the last survives entire, but only in the Latin of Rufinus. A few books of the Commentary on John survive in Greek, while portions of the work on the resurrection were preserved in a rejoinder by Methodius of Olympia, which itself survives only in the excerpts and epitomes of later authors see Dechow It was also in Alexandria, in imitation of the Homeric scholars of the Hellenistic era, that Origen addressed himself to the preparation of his great Hexapla, in which a corrected edition of the Septuagint, the original, allegedly inspired translation of the Hebrew scriptures 3 rd c.

    According to Eusebius, his talents excited the jealousy of Demetrius, the Bishop of Alexandria, who cited his self-castration as a reason for refusing to ordain him as a presbyter Eusebius, Church History 6. Nevertheless, when Origen left Alexandria in to escape the ferocity of the Emperor Caracalla, Demetrius recalled him from Caesarea, where he had already begun to increase his reputation 6. On a subsequent visit to Caesarea he was ordained a presbyter, and took up residence in the city 6.

    Having commenced a commentary on the Song of Songs in the course of a sojourn in Athens 6. Never rising above the rank of presbyter, he was often employed, according to the custom of the times, as a mouthpiece of orthodoxy in trials of heretics before an episcopal synod.

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    Eusebius commends his refutation of Beryllus of Bostra 6. To this period of his life we should also date the Dialogue with Heraclides , discovered at Tura in Chadwick Yet even at the height of his career, his orthodoxy was impugned. Jerome knows of a letter in which he rebuts the accusation that he had prophesied the salvation of the devil Crouzel ; the same letter indicates, according to Jerome, that his teachings had given offence to Heraclas, his former student who had now succeeded Demetrius as bishop of Alexandria.

    His assertion that Origen was then in his seventieth year is inconsistent with the date implied for his birth His library in Caesarea was inherited by his admirer Pamphilus, then by Eusebius as a disciple of Pamphilus and bishop of that city. From this work and the philippics of such enemies of Origen as Jerome, Theophilus of Alexandria, Epiphanius of Salamis, and the Emperor Justinian, we can cull fragments of writings that have otherwise perished see further Clark We also possess an anthology of choice excerpts from his writings the Philokalia McLynn , and two short texts On Prayer and To the Martyrs.

    Much had already been lost by attrition in the time of Eusebius died c. The Lutheran theologian Anders Nygren , who protested that a Christian Platonist is not a Christian, differed only in his judgment of the facts, not in his reading of them, from his critics J. The majority of his explicit references to Plato are to be found in the work Against Celsus , a reply to a dead polemicist who is nowadays characterized as a middle Platonist, though Origen hints that he may have been an Epicurean Against Celsus ] 1.

    The Bible consisting for Origen only of the New Testament and the Septuagint is the matrix of every argument in this as in all his writings; while it would be naive, and a contradiction of his own practice, to deny that that his exegesis was conditioned by philosophical assumptions; the propaedeutic to biblical study in his school at Caesarea was not Platonism but a professedly unprejudiced survey of all the Greek schools.

    We learn this from his pupil Gregory Thaumaturgus Panegyric Theologians have at last begun to take Origen at his word as an interpreter of the scriptures; this is not to say that all other influences are ignored, but that he is thought to deserve the same courtesy that Classicists show to Plotinus when they acknowledge that even doctrines which he consciously shares with the Stoics or Aristotle can be derived without subterfuge from the text of Plato.

    According to Porphyry Life of Plotinus , 3. This story implies both personal intimacy and geographical proximity, yet Origen the Christian was at this time almost sixty twenty years senior to Plotinus , had left Alexandria for Caesarea some years before, and already had a multitude of books to his name as a Christian teacher. Porphyry does not allude to these lucubrations in his Life of Plotinus , but says that the Origen he refers to breached the pact by issuing first a treatise On Daemons , then another, with the title That the King is the Only Maker , in the reign of Gallienus — He includes in the Life a letter, written in or by his former tutor Longinus, which ascribes to Origen only the work On Daemons Porphyry, Life of Plotinus , So, if this Origen is our author, Porphyry must at least have misstated the period at which he violated the agreement.

    The same apologists argue that Porphyry fails to mention his Christian writings either because he despised them or more cogently because the publication of them did not violate the oath cf. For these reasons, while theologians have often maintained, or simply assumed, the identity of the two Origens, the author of the article on Origen in the Oxford Classical Dictionary asserts that the contrary position is nowadays the more widely held Smith ; see further Edwards He assumes here what he asserts elsewhere, that the nature of God is known to us only by his own revelation in the sacred text.

    The scriptures tell us both that God is fire and that God is spirit, but Origen warns us not to deduce, from a literal construction of these terms, that he is a body Princ. It is possible but not certain, that he has in mind the Stoicizing theology of Tertullian: In urging the contrary position, that God is incorporeal. Origen speaks not only for the Platonists but for all the Greek apologists of the church: The philosophical sympathies of Origen become evident when he goes on to equate this bodiless god with nous or intellect.

    Although the Good in Plato is superior to ousia or being, Numenius like the majority of Platonists before Origen, appears to have posited nothing higher than intellect; Origen too—in this respect a good Platonist—is less inclined to apophatic theology than Philo the Alexandrian Jew or his Christian predecessors in Egypt, Clement and Basilides. To explain the selective use of the definite article in John 1. His dunamis , which is infinite and mediated by the second person of the Trinity, is the source of every dunamis that is exercised by his creatures, even by those who have fallen into apostasy and rebellion CommJohn 1.

    On the other hand nothing, not even the second person, proceeds directly from the immutable ousia of God CommJohn Yet, while he asserts that God is by nature impassible—in the sense that he is the agent, not the patient, in every transaction and cannot be moved by any external force—Origen is one of the first theologians to assert that he can suffer, in a sense, as God, and not only by virtue of the incarnation Homilies on Ezekiel 6.

    This suffering takes the form of commiseration for the plight of his sinful creatures, never of sorrow on his own account. Compassion supposes knowledge, and Origen appears to have been untroubled by the difficulties that arise from the ascription of contingent knowledge to an eternal being. That God transcends the temporal order is evident from his answer to those who ask what God was doing before he created the world: This appellation is not attested in earlier Christian prose, though it is anticipated in Philo and Numenius.

    It does not occur in works addressed by Origen to Christians of sound faith, not even in those which show no fear of subordinating the Son to the Father—an indication perhaps that it was avoided because it savoured of polytheism and not because it belied the equality of the divine persons Edwards Thus he maintains, on the one hand, that the Son, as truth John On the other hand, when we read that the Son is the wisdom and power of the Father 1 Corinthians 1. It is inconceivable that the Father could ever have lacked wisdom, and equally inconceivable to Origen that this wisdom could ever have taken a different form from the one that it now possesses as the second person or hypostasis of the Trinity Princ.

    Since it was this speech or word that created the world, it was argued, there would have been no reason for it to exist before the creation as a distinct hypostasis. If he existed at all, it was as the logos endiathetos , the word within, which had not yet emerged from the mind as logos prophorikos , or verbal utterance. In this latent phase he could be identified as Philo had already argued with the paradigm, or world of forms, which supplies the Platonic demiurge with his pattern for the creation.

    Clement of Alexandria accepts this equation, albeit perhaps without denying the hypostatic eternity of the Logos Edwards He cannot be identified with the world of forms, or Platonic ideas, because to Origen these ideas are imaginary entities which the Greeks absurdly suppose to be independent of the Creator Princ. It appears then that he endorsed the older and more literal reading of the Timaeus , according to which the Demiurge, the forms and matter are three autonomous principles of being. Origen himself opines that all genera, all species and even the archetypes of all particular things are eternally present in the mind of God Princ.

    These difficulties, as Origen perceived, had not been fully resolved by the argument that since the world is coeval with time we need not ask what God was doing before he created it see further Tzamalikos Saint Paul the Apostle spoke of this unity of Christians with Christ, referred to in the New Testament also in images such as that of the vine and the branches, [10] in terms of a single body that has Christ as its head in Romans According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, "the comparison of the Church with the body casts light on the intimate bond between Christ and his Church.

    Not only is she gathered around him; she is united in him, in his body. Three aspects of the Church as the Body of Christ are to be more specifically noted: To distinguish the Body of Christ in this sense from his physical body, the term "Mystical Body of Christ" is often used. According to Saint Ignatius c. Just as there are many offerings made throughout the world on any given day, and yet all partake of one and the same Body of Christ, so the Church, though existing in many separate localities, is only one.

    In modern teachings, the "Body of Christ" is used by other Protestants to collectively describe believers in Christ, as opposed to only those who are members of the Catholic Church. In this sense, Christians are members of the universal body of Christ not because of identification with the institution of the Church, but through identification with Christ directly through faith. This theology is based on several passages in the Bible , including Romans Jesus Christ is seen as the "head" of the body, which is the church, while the "members" of the body are seen as members of the Church.

    In this way, Protestantism defines the "Body of Christ" in a much broader way than does the Catholic Church. This has allowed for a broad base within Christianity to call themselves part of the "Body of Christ. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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    This article is about the Biblical phrase. For the Christian feast, see Corpus Christi feast. Jesus Christ in the Catacombs of Rome 4th century. Retrieved from " https: