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Those tribes who were not assimilated into the Roman Empire were forced to retreat to other areas that remained Celtic, such as Wales, Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Brittany. The Roman presence largely wiped out most traces of pre-existing culture in England—even replacing the language with Latin. The extent of Roman "Britannia" shortly before the Roman withdrawal Germanic tribes invade: As the Romans left, tribes from northern Germany and Denmark seized the opportunity to step in.

The Germanic Angles and Saxons soon controlled much of the territory that had been under Roman rule, while the Jutes from Denmark occupied some smaller areas in the south. The new settlers imposed their language and customs on the local inhabitants in much the same way that the Romans had. The Germanic language spoken by the Angles would eventually develop into English.

Invasion of Germanic tribes after A. The region was divided into several kingdoms, with the more powerful kings sometimes exerting influence or control over smaller bordering kingdoms. There was nothing like a single, unified English kingdom, however, until the early 10th century and the rise of the House of Wessex. Viking invasions and the Danelaw: During the 8th century, seafaring Scandinavian adventurers began raiding coastal areas in Europe. Known as the Vikings, they were not just warriors and pillagers. They also established numerous trade ports and settlements throughout the Western world, including the British Isles, Russia, Iceland and the Iberian Peninsula.

A group of Vikings that settled in northern France became known as the Normans and, by the early 11th century, ruled a great and powerful region, sanctioned by the French crown. Viking long ships Danish Vikings began to invade northern and eastern England in and eventually came to control a third of the country, defeating several smaller Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. The rulers of the Danelaw, as the Viking area became known, struggled for nearly 80 years with the remaining English kings over the region.

The balance of power swung back and forth a number of times, with an English king, Edward the Elder, gaining the upper hand in the early s and a Danish king, Cnut the Great, ruling England, Norway and Denmark from to The Normans of France, led by William the Conqueror, sailed across the English Channel and claimed the throne of England, defeating the only other rival, Harold Godwinson, at the Battle of Hastings in In , William extended his control to Scotland and Wales.

The Danelaw in A. The Norman kings, ruling primarily from France, gave rise to the House of Plantagenet, a line of kings that began to consolidate and modernize the kingdom of England. Beginning in , Edward I put down a revolt in Wales and led a full-scale invasion, bringing Wales under control of the English crown.

He then seized political control of Scotland during a succession dispute, leading to a rebellion there. The House of Plantagenet continued to reign until the 15th century. Towards the latter half of the 15th century the houses of York and the Lancaster, the most powerful Plantagenet branches fought a series of wars for control of the throne.

Those wars ended with the Battle of Bosworth Field on the 22nd August After the defeat of the Spanish Armada in , England established itself as a major naval power. As European nations began founding colonies around the world, England was well positioned to compete for control of the largely untapped resources of the New World. Religious and political upheavals in England in the 17th and 18th centuries played critical roles in establishing and defining early American history, as dissidents left England seeking religious freedom.

Subsequent emigrations from England to the Americas ensured a primarily English-derived culture and social structure. English ships and the Spanish Armada This led to the American War of Independence with and the Thirteen Colonies gaining independence and forming a new nation, the United States of America. In the Americas, Britain shifted its attention north to Canada where many of the defeated loyalists from the revolution had migrated to. And to make up for lost wealth in America, Britain now paid greater attention to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa.

Shortly after Britain set up penal colonies in Australia transporting large number of convicts to Australia. Over 80 years over , convicts were sent to Australia. By the end of the 19th Century it was said that the sun never set on the British Empire, since it stretched around the world. At lunchtime on the 28th February an American and British scientist, James Watson and Francis Crick, walked into the Eagle pub in Cambridge and announced that they had "discovered the secret of life". Crucial to their discovery was the work of another British scientist, Rosalind Franklin, whose X-Ray photographs of DNA gave vital clues to its structure.

The European Jewish region is not geographically defined in the same way as most other ethnic regions. The historic dispersal of the Jewish population from its origin in the Levant on the east coast of the Mediterranean resulted in insular communities scattered throughout Europe, North Africa, Central Asia and the Middle East.

Although some Jewish communities enjoyed positions of relative peace and prosperity, many more were segregated from mainstream society by law, custom and prejudice, experiencing sustained persecution and discrimination. Genetic Diversity in the European Jewish Region: The people living in the European Jewish region are much less admixed than most other regions which means that when creating ethnicity estimates for people native to this area, we rarely see similarities to DNA profiles from other nearby regions.

We have used our reference panel to build a European Jewish genetic profile. See chart above, in green. Population History Origin of the Jews: Much of what is known about the early history of the Jews is taken from the Hebrew Bible. While there is some archaeological evidence to support certain details of the Biblical account, often it remains the only source and is given varying amounts of credence by different scholars.

According to this source, the Jews are descended from Abraham, a Sumerian who traveled west from Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan, which lay along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. The Kingdom of Israel in B. The Assyrians conquered and deported many of the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom in the 7th century B. In about B. A large number of Jews were expelled from their former kingdom and forced to resettle in Babylon. Many historians mark this event as the beginning of the Jewish diaspora, which refers to the scattering of the population.

When Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon in B. The former Kingdom of Judah, renamed Judea, was made a province of the Persian Empire—although its size was significantly reduced. Many Jews returned to Jerusalem, but many more stayed in Babylon, where Talmudic scholarship study of the central text of Judaism was founded. Over time, prominent Jewish communities were established in Alexandria, Rome and Greece.

When his territories were divided after his death, Judea became part of the Seleucid Empire. The Judeans were commanded to accept Greek polytheism, leading to rebellion. Fighting for years under Judas Maccabee, the Judeans won the right to rededicate the Temple, an event commemorated by the holiday of Hanukkah. The collapse of the Seleucid Empire led to a second period of self-rule for the Jews, from B. When King Herod assumed power with the help of the Romans, however, Judea became a client state of the Roman Republic.

There were three major Jewish revolts against the Romans in Judaea, the first of which began in 66 A. It was quelled in the year 70 when Titus sacked Jerusalem. The city was burned and most of the Jews were killed or sold into slavery throughout the Roman Empire. The second revolt, called the Kitos War, lasted from to At the end of the Bar Kokhba revolt , the Romans completely razed Jerusalem. Once again, they sold the majority of the survivors into slavery, this time placing severe restrictions on those who remained.

By the 2nd century, Jews were located throughout the Roman Empire. By the 5th century, there were scattered communities from Spain in the west to the Byzantine Empire in the east. Because Jews were usually restricted by law from owning land, they turned toward occupations in commerce, education and medicine. Over the centuries, the Jews settled where they could throughout western Europe, enduring frequent discrimination and periodic expulsions from various countries.

Facing increasing persecution in the west during the 11th and 12th centuries, many of the Ashkenazi Jews moved from England, France and Germany to eastern Europe, where Poland and Lithuania encouraged Jewish settlement. Historically, Ashkenazi Jews lived in separate towns known at shtetls.

In , approximately , Jews lived in Poland. By the middle of the 17th century, there were more than 1 million. During the late 19th century, government-condoned persecution of the Jews in Russia, called pogroms, forced many to move to the United States and to Palestine.

In Theodor Herzl, an Austro-Hungarian journalist, established the Zionist Organization and became the charismatic figurehead of the growing modern Zionist movement. He and his supporters continually lobbied foreign governments for help in the establishment of a Jewish state. After the Ottoman Empire was defeated in World War I, its territories, including Palestine, were divided into mandates administered by the British and French.

The British government, with its Balfour Declaration in , announced its support of establishing Palestine as a national home for the Jews. A small number of Jews have lived in this region for generations, tracing their ancestors back thousands of years, with the majority returning in the last century. It is the only remaining part of the Second Temple, destroyed by the Romans in 70 A. Your genetic ethnicity estimate indicates that you have ancestry from the region that is home to the indigenous people of the Americas. This vast region stretches over two continents to include the rugged territory of Alaska and Canada, mountains and plains of the United States, dry valleys of Mexico, tropical jungles of Central America and South America, and the Patagonian steppes of southern Argentina and Chile.

Genetic Diversity in the Native American Region: Individuals from the Native American region are much less admixed than individuals from most other regions. This means that when creating genetic ethnicity estimates for people native to this area, we rarely see similarities to DNA profiles from other regions. The blue chart above shows examples of ethnicity estimates for people native to the area. For this region, we see a very narrow range: See green chart above. North and South America were the last inhabited continents to be populated by humans.

Much of the native population remained nomadic hunter-gatherers, but a number of more advanced cultures developed as well. Many places had rich soils, warm temperatures and plenty of rain. The Mississippian culture, centered in the region later named for it, farmed maize and had a complex, stratified society. The Mayans of Central America were highly advanced, known for their writing, astronomy, art, mathematics and highly developed religious institutions that built enormous stone pyramids. Possible land route from Asia across the Bering Strait The first contact with Europeans likely came when Leif Erickson and his Icelandic Vikings established a temporary settlement in Canada.

Early Spanish explorers like Hernando Cortes, Juan Ponce de Leon and Hernando de Soto brought things the indigenous population had never seen before, such as horses, guns and smallpox. As settlers continued moving westward, many tribes were relocated. However, there are still many Native American groups throughout North America that retain their indigenous languages and traditions, particularly in northern Canada and in Mexico.

A few, like the Pima, who live along the Gila and Salt Rivers in modern-day Arizona, were able to keep at least parts of their traditional territory. In South America there are some indigenous peoples in the Amazon area who have had little or no contact with people outside their tribes. New diseases and weapons took their toll there as well, and local populations and cultures often waned or disappeared as European colonization spread. Today some of those same cultures, and the indigenous people who did survive, are recognized for contributions to fields as varied as art, agriculture and medicine.

Migrations into this region: North and South America were settled by at least three waves of migrants from Asia, who occupied the Americas from Canada to the southern tip of Chile. North America was initially occupied by people who came from Siberia and coastal North Asia. Probably fewer than 1, individuals crossed the Bering land bridge; they were likely tracking animal herds and discovered an expansive new territory.

Native Americans appear to derive from this initial wave of migration. Mounting evidence suggests they dispersed rapidly along the western coast of the Americas, perhaps by sea, within a period of only about a thousand years. Then they migrated inland. As settlers, these groups were dramatically successful: In only a few thousand years they had occupied virtually the entire landmass.

A Chipewyan woman - Photograph by Edward S. Current research has shown that there were also two other migrations. The Chipewyan live in Canada. Migrations within the region: The native people of the Americas are divided into several cultural regions. Cultures developed opportunistically as the first migration moved quickly down the Pacific coastline of the Americas and then inland.

The Arctic area is cold, flat and treeless; a frozen desert nears the Arctic Circle. It includes Greenland and parts of present-day Alaska and Canada. Climate and terrain made this region difficult to settle, and the population was scattered and small. The Arctic peoples lived in dome-shaped houses made of sod, timber or ice blocks. They used seal and otter skins to make waterproof clothes and traveled by dogsleds and kayak. The Subarctic cultures lived among the swampy, piney forests and waterlogged tundra that stretches across much of inland Alaska and Canada.

Travel was difficult, and toboggans, snowshoes and lightweight canoes were the primary means of transportation. Indigenous groups included Athabaskan and Algonquian speakers, and the people were primarily nomadic hunters and gatherers. Iroquoian and Algonquian speakers lived here in small farming and fishing villages along the ocean, growing crops such as corn, beans and vegetables.

The Iroquoians were warriors. When the Europeans colonized the area and pressed westward, they displaced the indigenous people living here.

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The area of the Southeast cultures lay north of the Gulf of Mexico and south of the Northeast. It was a humid, fertile region, and its people became expert farmers, growing crops like maize, beans, squash, tobacco and sunflowers. The European settlers called the inhabitants the Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole. They all spoke Muskogean languages. The Southeast culture area lost many of its native people to disease and displacement by the time of the American Revolution.

Starting in the majority of these people were forced to relocate to Oklahoma in a migration called the Trail of Tears. Populations here consisted of relatively settled hunters and farmers. After Europeans made contact, bringing horses, this group became more nomadic, following great herds of buffalo across the prairie. Their dwellings were cone-shaped teepees, which could be folded up and carried anywhere.

The Plains cultures were eventually forced onto U. The Southwest cultures—which inhabited a huge desert region in Arizona and New Mexico, as well as parts of Colorado, Utah, Texas and Mexico—developed two different ways of life. Sedentary farmers lived in permanent settlements, growing crops like corn, beans and squash.

They were Hopis, Zunis, Yaquis and Yumas. They lived in multistory pueblos built from stone and adobe. The other group was nomadic and survived by hunting, gathering and raiding the sedentary farmers. They included the Navajo and Apache. This area became part of the United States after the Mexican War, and the Southwest cultures were resettled on reservations. Photograph by Ansel Adams. The boundaries for the Great Basin cultures were the Rocky Mountains to the east, the Sierra Nevada to the west, the Columbia Plateau to the north and the Colorado Plateau to the south.

It was a barren wasteland of deserts, salt flats and brackish lakes. They foraged for roots, seeds and nuts, as well as hunting snakes, lizards and small mammals. They were nomadic and lived in easily built wickiups made of willow poles or saplings, leaves and brush. After Europeans made contact, bringing horses to the region, the Great Basin tribes formed equestrian hunting and raiding bands. Most of these people lost their lands—and many lost their lives—as settlers pushed farther west. Apache wickiup in Arizona, California: The region was temperate and hospitable, and the California peoples included approximately different tribes and spoke at least dialects of the Penutian, Hokan, Uto-Aztecan and Athapaskan languages.

Using systems of trade and common rights, they were peaceful people. The area had a mild climate and an abundance of natural resources. Inhabitants built permanent villages that housed hundreds of people and had a sophisticated, stratified social structure. Social status depended on possessions and how close a person was to the village chief. The Plateau cultures were found in the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, where many cultures intersected: Most of the Plateau peoples lived in small, peaceful villages along streams and riverbanks.

They were fishers, hunters and gatherers. The majority spoke languages derived from Penutian. When other native groups brought horses to the area, the Plateau peoples quickly integrated them into their culture and economy, and trading became a part of their lives. Most of these people were resettled on reservations. This group is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits that were developed and shared by its indigenous cultures. When they domesticated turkeys and dogs and learned to cultivate maize, beans, squash and chilies, the Mesoamerican cultures evolved from Paleo-Indian, hunter-gatherer, tribal living into settled agricultural villages.

The Mesoamerican peoples include many cultures, among which the Aztecs and the Mayans rose to prominence in their day. Their civilizations featured large ceremonial centers, and they traded gems and commodities. The Aztecs spoke Nahuatl and are best known for their mathematical expertise and accurate calendars. The Mayans had a written language and are known for their astronomy, art and architecture—as well as their calendar. The Aztecs were subjugated by the Spanish conquistadors by Some of the Mayans remained independent until the late 17th century.

However, many aspects of Mesoamerican cultures, including languages, still survive to this day. Piedra Azteca del Sol. The Caribbean cultures stem from nomadic foragers who migrated from Central America and later developed into well-organized agricultural communities with great social and political cohesion. The islands have significant cultural diversity within and among them. The cultures had extensive trade networks, knowledge of astronomy and navigation, strong spiritual traditions and high levels of artistic and craft expertise.

Today, however, many individuals and groups with indigenous Caribbean ancestry are reclaiming their cultural identity. The Andean cultural area spans mountainous, tropical and desert environments in and around the Andes mountain range. However, the most famous is the Incan civilization. The Incan Empire was enormous, flourishing from through The Incan language, Quechua, is still in use today. The Andean region has seen 10, years of cultural growth.

Along with cultures in the Amazon Basin region, Andean cultures typically promote agriculture and knowledge of nature. A wide variety of domesticated species have come out of the region, and these cultures also use thousands of medicinal plants. The best-known tribe among Amazon Basin cultures is the Yanomami, which still survives today. The Amazon still has several small tribes that have never seen the outside world. More are being discovered through the use of satellites. Current practice is to leave these groups undisturbed, using aerial observations to learn more about them.

Prior to European conquest, the Southern Cone of South America was inhabited by numerous cultures that were shaped by their environments. Tribes in the Andes farmed the region's mineral-rich soil. The southern archipelago was suitable for fishing. Hunter-gatherers found an abundance of game in the Pampas, Littoral and Chaco regions.

Please note that genetic ethnicity estimates are based on individuals living in this region today. While a prediction of genetic ethnicity from this region suggests a connection to the groups occupying this location, it is not conclusive evidence of membership to any particular tribe or ethnic group.

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More than 3, varieties of potato have been raised by people in Andean cultures. Because they lie near or on the equator, these nations typically include tropical rainforest and humid savanna. While the Congo takes its name from the old African kingdom of Kongo, Cameroon gets its name from the first Europeans to arrive in the area in Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Cameroon and Congo region - From a collection of people.

The blue chart above shows examples of ethnicity estimates for people native to the region. The other regions most commonly found are the neighboring Nigeria and Africa Southeastern Bantu regions. The Congo River Basin has been home to human populations for at least 30, years. This small group some 40, is actually more closely related to groups found in the deserts of the Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers region. Two Baka men in the dense forests of Cameroon Baka Pygmy collecting honey in the rainforest, Cameroon In north-central Cameroon, a high range of rugged mountains stretches across the country from west to east.

To the far south and east, in the vast Congo River Basin, the environment consists of dense rainforest and wide waterways. These features have created a degree of isolation and served as a barrier to frequent or large-scale migrations or conquests. The populous Bamileke tend to be Christian and live in small fons, or chiefdoms, in highly organized villages led by local chiefs. The less populous Bamum tend to be Muslim and have a more centralized social structure under a high king.

The Bantu peoples began migrating from Cameroon in about B. Some went east across Africa and then south; some settled the Congo River Basin; and some went south along the coast to Angola. These Bantu groups have a genetic ethnicity better represented by the Southeastern Bantu region profile. Bantu Cradle The slave trade: The threat of malaria prevented any significant settlement or conquest of the interior prior to the s—when an effective malaria drug quinine became available.

So the Europeans initially focused on coastal trade and acquiring slaves. Most slaves were captured by African middlemen from the interior and taken to port cities to be sold, and the flow of human traffic from many ethnic groups was constant. Slaves being transported, 19th-century engraving The 19th and 20th centuries: Cameroon escaped colonial rule until , when treaties with tribal chiefs brought the area under German domination.

Independence was achieved in for French Cameroon and in for British Cameroon. DNA indicates that John Punch, the first African man documented to have been enslaved for life in the early American Colonies, likely came from the Cameroon region. Ivory Coast and Ghana: Ivory Coast and Ghana. Benin, Togo, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal. Neighboring Ghana was known as the Gold Coast until it won independence from colonial rule in and renamed itself after a medieval West African empire. Today, more than 46 million people live in the two countries, which depend less on gold and ivory than they do chocolate: Genetic Diversity in the Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers Region Individuals from the Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers region are admixed, which means that when creating genetic ethnicity estimates for people native to this area, we frequently see similarities to DNA profiles from other nearby regions.

Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers region From a collection of 35 people: We have used our reference panel to build a genetic profile for the Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers region. For this region we see a substantial range: See the green chart above. Population History Geography as destiny: Individuals with this genetic ethnicity may also be found in Angola, Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. First is the Kalahari Desert, the second-largest desert in the world, which spans a large part of five countries.

Despite having no water source beyond seasonal rainfall, the Kalahari is home to a rich variety of plants and animals that have made life possible for the Khoe-San peoples spread across it. The second important feature is the Congo River Basin; the river drainage and massive rainforests provide a home to the Baka and Mbuti and other Pygmy groups.

Life in the Kalahari Desert and Congo forests was fraught with risks and dangers that could only be overcome by cooperation. Harmony in the group was the highest cultural goal for people native to these regions. The southern portion of this region has been home to the nomadic Khoe-San peoples for thousands of years. Both groups comprise many smaller groups and clans.

Though distinct culturally and linguistically, the Khoe and San have a common genetic origin. A San tribesman in Namibia - Photo by Ian Beatty Though the Khoe tend to have hierarchical cultures based on livestock wealth, the San have no hierarchy, share all things and make all decisions by consensus, even if reaching agreement takes a long time.

Both cultures are oral in nature—they have no written language—but have distinctive art forms and language. The Khoisan languages are known for their distinctive clicks; however, their languages are unrelated to nearby Bantu languages such as Zulu and Xhosa, which have adopted some Khoisan click consonants. Because the Khoe-San groups have no written language, their history is based on archaeological findings, oral tradition and DNA studies.

The great Bantu migrations from eastern Africa brought successful ironworking, animal husbandry and farming to southern Africa, creating fast-growing populations that displaced the Khoe-San peoples. From the 16th through the 18th centuries, Bantu groups pushed the Khoe-San farther south and west toward modern-day Botswana and South Africa, while Dutch and French settlers of the Cape region pressured Khoe groups to move farther north.

Although they had been spread thinly across southern Africa for thousands of years, the Khoe-San population ultimately concentrated in the arid Kalahari and areas they occupy today. The Baka and Mbuti: The rainforests of the Congo River Basin, especially those of the north and east, are home to Pygmy groups such as the Baka and Mbuti.

They live in small, nomadic groups, eating fish, bushmeat and foraged fruits and plants.

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The Baka and Mbuti groups are also communal, egalitarian and make decisions by consensus. The tropical rainforests tend to swallow up their artifacts and habitations, which are made of natural materials that decompose quickly. Archaeological evidence indicates that human populations have lived in the Congo River Basin for some 30, years.

Genetic evidence points to all Pygmy populations coming from a common ancestral group about 3, years ago. Portrait of a Baka man Colonial and modern eras: Because of their small populations, isolation, nomadic lifestyle and the largely inaccessible and inhospitable areas they lived in, the Khoe-San and Baka and Mbuti people were less afflicted by the slave trade than other African populations. The Colonial Era, however, had numerous long-range effects. As the newcomers came into contact with the native peoples, they altered migration patterns, introduced Christianity, made certain lands off-limits and changed the hierarchies and relationships among tribes and clans.

Ultimately, the nations that were formed in the aftermath of colonization continued to disenfranchise nomadic peoples, using their traditional lands for resources such as diamonds, gold, platinum and strategic minerals.

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Many consider the San to be the best trackers in the world. In fact, scientists have recently recruited San trackers to help decipher prehistoric human footprints that have been preserved in caves. A San hunter in the Kalahari Desert Senegal: Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali and Mauritania. Genetic Diversity in the Senegal Region: Examples of people native to the Senegal region: Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Senegal region From a collection of 28 people: We have used our reference panel to build a genetic profile for Senegal.

For Senegal, we see a very narrow range. Archeological findings indicate that the Senegal area has been inhabited since prehistoric times. For the last millennium at least, trade routes have helped shape the area. Trans-Saharan trade flowing to and from the interior of Africa helped establish and maintain the Ghana, Mali, and Wolof or Jolof Empires, each of which bordered or included portions of modern-day Senegal. Trade and conquest brought wealth, Islam and people into the region—and sometimes pushed people out. Portuguese traders reached the estuary of the Senegal River in the mids. Over the next four centuries the direction of trade shifted.

Instead of heading inland, toward the Sahara, it began to flow outward, toward the European traders on the Atlantic Coast. Controlled at various times by the Portuguese, Dutch, English and French, the island served as a warehouse where, over a year period, millions of slaves were taken from their homeland. The island, with its House of Slaves museum and memorial, is now a pilgrimage destination for the African diaspora from the slave trade. Senegal gained independence in ; the Gambia, in Migrations and ethnic groups in the Senegal region: Despite its relatively small size, the area is home to several ethnic groups.

Others include the Jola and the Mandinka. Many believe the Wolof or Jolof people migrated into Senegal from the northeast sometime around the 11th century. By , they had established their own empire, a federation of several Wolof kingdoms, or states. The Wolof Empire came to an end when the French took control of the interior during the 19th century.

Most Wolof identify themselves as Muslim. Their culture once had a three-tiered caste system—freeborn, of slave descent, and artisans—though this has broken down somewhat in recent times. The Wolof language has become the lingua franca of Senegal. Historically, the Fula Fulani, Fulbe, Peul were a nomadic people known for keeping cattle. Some evidence suggests that their presence in West Africa goes back centuries, possibly including North African and Middle Eastern ancestry.

They spread outward from Senegal, through western and central Africa and east to the Sudan. They are also strongly linked to Islam, and some Fulani led jihads in West Africa as late as the 19th century. In modern Senegal, they primarily live in the Fouta Toro area, in the northeastern part of the country; and near Casamance, south of the Gambia.

Wolof in war costume Serer: Some scholars believe that the Serer people have the oldest roots in the region, and Serer oral traditions claim their original ancestors came from the Upper Nile area. The Serer people resisted Islam for centuries, and some still practice their traditional religion of Fat Rog or Fat Roog. Many also speak one of the Serer languages, and most occupy the west-central part of modern Senegal. Senegalese wrestling also has roots in Serer forms of wrestling, which was once used to train warriors for combat.

Photo by Pierre-Yves Beaudouin. The Mandinka are a minority population in Senegal, but a significant one because of their experience with the slave trade. During the slave trade era, up to one third of the Mandinka people were enslaved and shipped to the New World. For years, anthropologists and others looked at African ethnic groups as being mostly solitary and static. Genetic Diversity in the Benin and Togo Region: Benin sits just west of Nigeria, and west of Benin is Togo. Benin has a population of 9. Togo is only slightly behind with a growth rate of 2.

Though tied closely together by history, geography and religion, the inhabitants of Benin and Togo are ethnically quite different. Benin has more ethnic ties to its neighbor Nigeria; Togo has more links to Ghana. These ethnic ties are the result of long-standing kingdoms that flourished before European colonists created new borders. Considering their small size, both countries have great ethnic diversity, especially in the north. Some populations there are related to ethnic groups farther north in Burkina Faso, and the small but influential Hausa population is largely responsible for bringing Islam to Togo.

In the south of Benin, the Fon people are dominant. They are descendants from the powerful African kingdom of Dahomey that ruled the region from about to Most northern Beninese and Togolese practice herding, fishing and subsistence farming. Trade is limited in the north, where neither country has much in the way of navigable waterways or viable roads.

In the more urbanized south, however, people have greater social and physical mobility. In the past, the proximity to the coast spawned trade relationships with Europeans, other Africans and with slave traders. Many people in Togo and Benin speak one of about 20 related Gbe languages. Linguistic evidence indicates that most of the Gbe people came from the east in several migrations between the 10th and 15th centuries. The Gbe were pushed westward during a series of wars with the Yoruba people of Nigeria, then settled in Tado on the Mono River in present-day Togo. Around , Fon emigrants from Tado established the Kingdom of Dahomey, a Fon monarchy that ruled Benin for some years.

It was also the top trading partner with the Europeans. Other contemporary kingdoms in Benin included Porto-Novo, as well as smaller northern states. Many other groups who settled in Togo were refugees of wars in Dahomey and what is now Ghana. Gezo, King of Dahomey. European slave traders first became a force on the coast of West Africa. By Portuguese traders had reached the Bight of Benin, and by the mids Spain and England had also legalized the slave trade.

As the demand for slaves grew, the Kingdom of Dahomey and others in the region provided European traders with a constant supply in exchange for goods and firearms. Dahomey, which had long paid tribute to the Yoruba Empire of Oyo, used its new weapons and power to throw off that yoke. With the end of slavery, the Kingdom of Dahomey lost its revenue source and began an economic decline. The French defeated Dahomey in a series of wars between and , and eventually, both Benin and Togo minus an area under British control became part of French West Africa.

One result of the French colonial period was that, in many cases, French West Africans had certain citizenship or other rights under French law; over time, African communities sprang up in France and other parts of Europe. In , both Benin and Togo declared independence. Tradition says the village was built on the lake to protect the Tofinu people from slave traders because Fon warriors, who captured slaves for Portuguese traders, were not allowed to fight on water. Ganvie, Benin West Asia: The Greater Caucasus Range, running northwest to southeast between the Black and Caspian Seas, is the traditional line of demarcation between the continents of Europe and Asia.

It was here, according to Greek mythology, that Zeus bound Prometheus for giving fire to humans. Linguistically, culturally, and even ecologically diverse, the Caucasus area is home to more than 50 ethnic groups and is one of 34 "biodiversity hotspots" areas with significant, threatened biodiversity in the world.

Genetic Diversity in the Caucasus Region: People living in the Caucasus region today are admixed, which means that when creating genetic ethnicity estimates for people native to this area, we frequently see similarities to DNA profiles from other nearby regions. Other regions commonly seen in people native to the Caucasus region: We have used our reference panel to build a genetic profile for the Caucasus region. The blue chart above shows examples of ethnicity estimates for people native to this area. For the Caucasus, we normally see a relatively narrow range: The other regions most commonly found are the neighboring Middle East and Asia South regions.

There, the nations of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan are nestled in the highlands between the Black and Caspian Seas. Its location has made the area a homeland for some of the world's most famous civilizations and empires. Cyrus the Great expanded his territories from his home in Iran to create the powerful Persian Empire, the largest in the world to that point around B. Known for his religious and cultural tolerance, Cyrus freed the Jews from slavery to the Babylonians. Turkey, in particular, has historically been at the crossroads of Eastern and Western cultures, beginning with the Trojan War.

As famously narrated by Homer in his Iliad, Mycenaean Greeks laid siege to the ancient Lydian city of Troy, which was most likely part of the ancient Hittite Empire. Their eventual conquests in the Byzantine Empire and its territories in the Holy Lands of the Levant were the catalysts for the first Crusades. Shia Islam is the official state religion of Iran, while the Sunni branch is predominant in the Caucasus groups of the north, such as the Nogay also Nogai , Adyghe and Chechens. Modern-day Turkey is a secular nation, but the vast majority of the population is Muslim, including the Kurds in the southeast.

Georgia and Armenia have a long history of Christianity, being two of the earliest nations to adopt it. Since the dissolution of the USSR, continual border disputes contribute to a tense atmosphere. About 45, years ago, modern humans first came to the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding region from somewhere in the Middle East. Farming spread to the Caucasus Mountains during the Neolithic period, and later, Jewish populations also moved north into the region.

Additional evidence suggests that Mongols invaded the Caucasus area years ago, leaving descendants such as the Nogay. Migrations from this region: Despite its intermediate position between Eastern Europe and the Middle East, the Caucasus region seems rarely to have been the source of migrations. The Armenian city of Yerevan, founded in B. Introduccion al Anglicanismo Catolico. Ignatius Carolus; Walter G.


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No obedecen a la Iglesia de Inglaterra. Son hombres de paz pero hacedores de justicia. Que nadie tenga miedo a la oscuridad porque Cristo es luz. Los marianos anglicanos siguen el uso del Santo Rosario como lo hace la Iglesia Romana con algunas variantes en el contenido de oraciones. Algunos de ellos con sus familias jamas regresaron a la "Madre Patria" Inglaterra , y sus descendientes lograron sembrar el Evangelio de Cristo hasta los confines del orbe. Usar la sexualidad del hombre como pantalla o negocio es un acto desagradable a Dios y rompe las leyes de honestidad y honradez al creer que el cinismo como doctrina es sano a los ojos de Dios.

Cada integrante de la iglesia debe tener estabilidad emocional y sexual para poder hablar de la transparencia y rectitud de Cristo. Quien tolera dentro del amor y el servicio hace grande a los otros y consigue la paz que viene de Dios. Tales actos tienen un significado especial y la historia unida a ellos. Pocos se dieron cuenta que la iconoclasia en realidad era un ataque a la fe verdadera. Pero ahora, cuando se ve a Dios en la carne, conversando con los hombres, yo hago una imagen del Dios que veo. Yo no adoro importa: Adoro el Creador de la materia que se hizo asunto por mi causa.

Honro, pero no como Dios. Debido a este saludo a toda la materia restante con reverencia, porque Dios ha llenado de gracia y poder. San Basilio el Grande dice que el honor tributado a la imagen pasa a la original. No es posible debido a que dicha autoridad se ejerce sobre el mismo Cristo. Ni el Papa ni la Biblia, por lo tanto, puede ser considerado como una autoridad sobre la Iglesia.

Para estas corrientes o movimientos que dan paso a la duda en general, pero cada tendencia tiene su propio nombre en particular. Si las acciones de los Consejos aparecen negativos, es porque fueron llamados a erradicar falsas doctrinas, no inventar otros nuevos, ni para exponer todo el contenido de la Fe. Del descenso de Cristo a los Infiernos. Del Pecado Original o de Nacimiento. Por lo tanto no tenemos poder para hacer buenas obras gratas y aceptables a Dios, sin la Gracia de Dios por Cristo nos prevenga, para que tengamos buena voluntad, y obre con nosotros, cuando tenemos esa buena voluntad.

De las Buenas Obras. Y no hubo pecado en El, como dice San Juan. Y por lo tanto debe condenarse a los que dicen, que ya no pueden volver a pecar mientras vivan, o niegan el poder ser perdonados a los que verdaderamente se arrepientan. De la Autoridad de la Iglesia. De la Autoridad de los Concilios Generales. Que la Indignidad de los Ministros no impide el efecto de los Sacramentos. De las dos Especies. Como deben evitarse las Personas excomulgadas. De las Tradiciones de la Iglesia. Del recto uso de la Iglesia. De las buenas obras; y del Ayuno en primer lugar. Que las Oraciones Comunes y los Sacramentos deben celebrarse, y administrarse en lengua conocida.

De la Natividad de Cristo. Del Estado de Matrimonio. Del Poder de los Magistrados Civiles. Que los Bienes de los Cristianos no son comunes. Del Juramento del Cristiano. Reconocemos que la regla de fe establecido por San Vicente de Lerins: La Iglesia es el Cuerpo de Cristo en el trabajo en el mundo. Ella es la sociedad de los bautizados llamados a salir del mundo: Como fiel Esposa de Cristo, que es diferente del mundo y no debe ser influenciado por ella.

Responsabilidad individual Todas las personas, individual y colectivamente, son responsables de su Creador por sus actos, motivos, pensamientos y palabras, ya que "todos debemos comparecer ante el tribunal de Cristo El hombre como pecador Reconocemos que el hombre, como heredero del pecado original, es "muy apartado de la justicia original", y como un rebelde contra la autoridad de Dios se hace responsable de su justo juicio.

El deber del cristiano sea Moral Creemos, por lo tanto, es deber de la Iglesia y sus miembros para dar testimonio de la moral cristiana, para seguirlo en sus vidas, y rechazar los falsos valores del mundo. No existe ninguna otra norma para el culto. Asuntos Financieros El derecho de las congregaciones a control de sus temporalidades debe ser firme y constitucionalmente reconocido y protegido. No hacemos nada nuevo. Pittsburgh's Anglican 4th Day movement has brought Christian renewal and recommittment to thousands of Anglicans.

The Anglican House Publishers: The newly created publishing company of the Anglican Church of North America. Currently in formation, this organization is dedicated to producing and distributing high quality Christian publications.

The Anglican Order of Friars Preachers: Founded in the Continuing Anglican Church to foster religious vocations and to maintain the apostolate of preaching salvation and the orthodox catholic faith. The Anglican Parishes Association: An organization founded in by the then Right Reverend William O. Lewis to publish prayer books, missals, devotional books, tracts, calendars, and other materials to serve the religious, educational, and liturgical needs of the Anglican Catholic Church, its members, and other interested persons. The Anglican Priests for Life: The Society of The Holy Innocent wishes to complement, rather than duplicate, all work carried out by other pro- life groups, as listed throughout these pages.

We are not Partisan, Sectarian or in competition, we are Catholic defending the faith delivered by the saints Priests that use various versions of the Book of Common Prayer. The Anglican Scouting North America: Affiliated with the Anglican Church of North America. The Anglican Seminary of Virginia: Seminary education focuses on Anglican faith and orthodoxy of the primitive and traditional church as defined in the American Book of Common Prayer.

Studies for religious workers and laymen male and female are also offered. The Anglican Use Society: Anglicans in the Wilderness: We are a movement of present, former and would-be Anglicans who hold to its Reformed tradition. We seek the establishment of churches on American soil that honor the principles and Formularies of the English Reformation. The Christ Academy, Collingdale, Pennsylvania.

Affiliated with the Reformed Episcopal Church. The Colorado Anglican Society: Our mission is to foster unity, mission, and leadership development in the Anglican church in Colorado. The Committee on Women's Ministry: The Reformed Episcopal Church. The Compass and Star: A publication of the Progressive Episcopal Church. The Cummins Memorial Theological Seminary: The Escola de Teologia Bispo Ryle: Theological college of the Reformed Anglican Church of Brazil.

Increasingly, persons that are mature adults or professionals are seeking to follow after the Lord's call into ordained ministry.


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Therefore, we have felt that it is imperative to design educational programs that can meet the needs of students within the 21st century. The Fellowship of Concerned Churchmen: Working for the preservation of the historic Anglican Way since and We are evangelical, Anglican, and heirs to the Reformation, holding to the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion, which support a high view of the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments.

We also hold to the three creeds of ancient Christendom: Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian. The George Whitefield College: Muizenberg, Cape Town, South Africa. Theological college of the Church of England in South Africa. The Greenhouse Regional Church Movement: A movement of regional churches dedicated to evangelism through church multiplication- bringing the transforming love of Jesus to every people group. A ministry of the Anglican Church in North America. The Houston Anglicans Online: An educational community founded in in the classical, Christian tradition.

Unique in its approach among schools in Central Virginia, New Covenant serves about students in grades JK with the finest classical, Christian program of study in the region. The school is fully accredited, and is affiliated with the Reformed Episcopal Church. Thee orthodox journal for Anglicans in North America. A religious order in the Anglican Tradition dedicated to engage in acts of social services, education and evangelism in Korogocho slums, eastlands of Nairobi, Kenya.

The Order of the Daughters of the Holy Cross: Women who have committed our lives to the work and service of our Lord Jesus Christ. We pray daily for our church, its clergy, the Order and others in need. DoveTracts, founded in has been providing books, tracts, and teaching CDs and DVDs for churches and families internationally.

Theology in the midst of God's people, under the preaching of God's word, nourished by God's sacraments, training for God's mission and under the administration of God's discipline. Our mission is to prepare clergy and chaplains for ministry. Our goal is to provide professional in-depth training for work in the Body of Christ at a reasonable cost. Day and boarding coeducational school affiliated with the Reformed Episcopal Church. Associated with the Orthodox Anglican Communion. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Affiliated with the Anglican Province of Christ the King.

Commissioned with one goal: To advance the discipleship of God's children, without regard to denominational preference. However, we must begin building our curriculum somewhere, so we have started with the courses required for consecration by the Conservative Anglican Church of North America. We are an Anglican religious institute for men or women, married or single, living in community or residing in their own homes who seek through community and under the guidance of the Rule of St Benedict to live lives of increasing sanctification.

Our motto is "restoring the sacred" and our charism is both active and contemplative. We serve our fellow man in ministries of intercessory prayer and in chaplaincy programs in hospitals, schools and long term care facilities. Our goal each day is do all things with the sole intention to glorify God. The Servants of the Resurrection: An Anglican community in service persons who are in hospital, hospice, homebound or nursing home. The Sodality of the Most Holy Rosary is a spiritual association made up of dedicated men and women who meet on a regular basis within their own parishes to recite the Rosary either in the church or in member's homes.

The members of the Sodality strive to pray the fifteen mysteries of the Rosary during the course of each month with a minimum of one decade of the Rosary each day on a personal basis. It is the compassionate wing of the jurisdictions under the Province of Asia. In India, the two main jurisdictions are the Indian Christian Mission established in by the Anglican priest, Rev. Reflecting the Evangelical history of the REC.

The Young Anglicans Project: An Anglican ministry with a target audience of the birth - 30's community. The Young Anglicans Project website is designed to support families, children, youth and young adult workers in their work to affect this call on the lives of young people. At the project's website you will find community, theology and resources.