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Most of the current generation of gods have been revealed to be the descendants of the Elder Goddess Gaea. The two most featured pantheons are the Asgardians of whom Thor is a member and the Olympians of whom Hercules is a member. The lords of the various pantheons sometimes gather in groups known as the Council of Godheads and Council of Skyfathers.

The gods were forced to stop meddling with humanity at least openly a thousand years ago by the Celestials , and most people today believe them to be fictional. There are other pantheons that have been depicted in the Marvel Universe that are still actively worshipped in the real world including those worshipped by the Aboriginal inhabitants of Australia , the gods of Hinduism , the Shinto gods and the gods of Zoroastrianism.

These deities are rarely depicted, however. One such appearance generated a good deal of controversy as the depiction involved a fight between Marvel's incarnation of Thor and the Hindu god Shiva , a battle which Shiva lost. This battle was retconned later as having been the deity Indra , the Hindu god of thunder, who was posing as Shiva, that met defeat. Marvel's depiction of vampires has been heavily influenced by various interpretations of popular media, such as Bram Stoker 's Dracula. As with many other supernatural creatures, Marvel entwined the origin of vampires with aspects of the mythologies created by Lovecraft and Howard.

They were originally created by magical rites performed by priests of Atlantis prior to the Great Cataclysm that destroyed much of the world with Varnae becoming the first vampire. Marvel would depict vampires as frequent antagonists during the Hyborian Age to Howard characters such as Kull and Conan. In recent years, Marvel's depiction of vampires has altered greatly by creating various subspecies of vampires that exist in clans that greatly differ in appearance and belief.

All vampires are depicted with varying degrees of superhuman strength, speed, stamina, agility, reflexes and accelerated healing. Many are capable of transforming into animals such as bats or wolves, some can transform into a mist like substance; some of the most powerful are capable of controlling the weather to a somewhat limited degree. All vampires must ingest blood in order to maintain their survival and physical vitality. So long as they do so regularly, they cease to age and are immune to diseases. They retain the well known vulnerabilities common to vampires in other media interpretations including sunlight, garlic, religious icons and weapons made of silver.

Vampires can be killed by a wooden stake driven through the heart, though they return to life if the stake is removed. Vampires are highly allergic to silver and can be killed with it. While they normally heal rapidly, injuries inflicted by silver weapons heal at a much slower rate if the injuries aren't fatal. Vampires can also be killed by decapitation or being set on fire, with burning them to ashes and then scattering the ashes being the most effective means of ensuring their demise.

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The cosmic entities are beings of unbelievably great levels of power the weakest of whom can destroy planets who exist to perform duties that maintain the existence of the universe. Most do not care at all about "lesser beings" such as humans, and as a consequence their acts are recurrently dangerous to mortals.

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When dire threats threaten the universe it is not uncommon for these beings to gather together to discuss the threat, and even act. This being is indicated to be the Creator of all existence and all realities of the Marvel Universe and possibly beyond. The Living Tribunal is the cosmic judge, overseer, and mediator. It safeguards the multiverse from dire threats, but is also willing to destroy entire universes on behalf of more favored creations.

Most conceptual entities are simply interested in furthering their own essential function, or to keep the balance with an opposing force. However, certain cosmic entities, such as Galactus , In-Betweener , Maelstrom , or The Stranger have demonstrated personality, motivations, or except for the first mention even ambitions beyond their functions, but often maintain the perspective that morality is entirely relative, or that destroying civilisations of "lesser" beings is no more evil than if these beings destroyed an anthill.

Others such as Uatu the Watcher , Eon , or the Celestials Ashema and Tiamut are aberrations in the sense of sympathising with and occasionally coming to the defense of humanity. The " Fulcrum " is a comparatively recent addition to the hierarchy, that "all" cosmic entities allegedly serve, of a level of raw power stated to far surpass the might of the Watchers and the Celestials. Unlike most other entities it is capable of conscience, compassion, and even a sense of humour, and has stated that it wants other cosmic beings to develop such as well.

The Phoenix Force first received personification in Jean Grey. The Force is composed of the psionic energy from all living beings, past, present and future, and is an embodiment of rebirth and destructive transformation through "burning away what doesn't work", and helped to restart the universe before the Big Bang. The Marvel Universe is part of a multiverse , with various universes coexisting simultaneously usually without affecting each other directly. The action of most Marvel Comics titles takes place in a continuity known as Earth This continuity exists in a multiverse alongside trillions of alternative continuities.

Continuities besides Earth include the following for a complete listing see Multiverse:. In addition, multiple continuities are visited in the comic book series What If , What The--?! The concept of a continuity is not the same as "dimension" or "universe"; for example, characters like Mephisto and Dormammu hail from alternative dimensions and Galactus from another universe , but they all nevertheless belong to the Earth continuity where all the dimensions and universes seems to be connected to the same main timeline.

A continuity should also not be confused with an imprint ; for example, while the titles of some imprints, such as Ultimate Marvel , take place in a different continuity, some or all publications in other imprints, such as Epic Comics , Marvel MAX , and Marvel UK , take place within the Earth continuity. Within and sometimes between continuities, there exist a variety of dimensions , sometimes called pocket dimensions which typically are not depicted as separate continuities, but rather part of one, typically Earth There are a score of such dimensions, ranging from the Earthlike to the totally alien.

Some are magical in nature and others are scientific; some are inhabited and others are not. These include realities like the Microverse , the Darkforce Dimension , Limbo , the Mojoverse , and many more. The Astral Plane is a dimensional plane which is the source of telekinesis and various other psychic powers.

It is a dimension created by the Elder Goddess Oshtur that is sometimes referred to as the "Temple of Oshtur" or the "Realm of the Mind". Despite various contradictions, the term, dimension is sometimes interchangeable with universe or reality. Every reality of the Marvel Universe has numerous interconnected dimensions, with each dimension differing from those of other realities; for example, the Ultimate Asgard has clearly been shown to be distinct from the Asgard known to Earth characters.

Such dimensions, such as Asgard or the Dark Dimension are technically not "pocket dimensions" as they clearly reside completely outside the boundaries of the Marvel Universe, instead of within, as the former does. One cannot normally alter the Marvel Universe's history; if a time-traveller should cause an alteration to the established flow of events at some point in the past, a divergent universe will simply "branch out" from the existing timeline, and the time-traveller will still return to his or her unaltered original universe.

Those realities can also spawn realities of their own. There exists hundreds, probably thousands of such realities. It is unknown why this happens, though a warp known as the Nexus of All Realities exists in a swamp in the Florida of Earth For the most part this does not matter, as most beings are unaware that this occurs, or even that their universes were recently "born" from another. However, individuals and organizations exist that try to monitor or manipulate the various realities.

It has been shown to be possible to travel through time without creating a new alternative universe, instead altering events in the future, but this seems to have devastating and very far-reaching repercussions, as depicted in Marvel it almost destroyed the whole multiverse, including the afterlife. Also, time itself passes much differently within the confines of the Marvel Universe than it does in the real world.

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Despite various characters having appeared within company publications for decades, few if any have aged to any appreciable degree. For example, the patriotic hero Captain America was created in but stopped appearing in titles soon after the end of World War II. The character was revived more than twenty years later, explained as having been frozen in a block of ice though believed to be dead, to lead Marvel's latest team of superheroes the Avengers. This first Avengers team featured several characters that would go on to be some of the company's most famous and most popular.

Although the characters would be portrayed in hundreds and even thousands of adventures over the decades, they have been portrayed as having aged little or none at all. Naturally this tendency is purely due to story conveniences or a somewhat haphazardly shifting patchwork pattern of authors , and mainly that the fictional "continuity" has been maintained and expanded far beyond what Stan Lee and others originally planned or hoped for.

Hence, the passing of time was more discernible in the very early years, such as the graduation of Spider-Man ; and what started as children or teenaged characters, such as Kitty Pryde , Franklin Richards , Valeria Richards , Power Pack , or the New Mutants are all allowed to age at wildly shifting rates in the second case even backwards at times , whereas surrounding characters somewhat dependent on a certain age limit do not change at all. This recurrently creates inherently contradictory effects, as events are routinely described to have happened several years ago, even in cases when this would mean that some of the involved characters would have been toddlers.

Different approaches also exist regarding allowing "second-generation" descendants of heroes or villains, fully grown over 18 years after an event for example Hulkling , other members of the Young Avengers , Runaways , and Secret Warriors , whereas other books, such as Young Allies use the inherent contradiction to debunk similar claims.

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If a past storyline wherein a direct depictions of a then-current president or similar is referred to in a later era, it tends to become updated accordingly, sometimes with an "in-joke" acknowledgement. David Fernau marked it as to-read May 16, Christopher marked it as to-read Jun 23, Cliff marked it as to-read Jul 26, Ed marked it as to-read Sep 18, Sherri Thompson marked it as to-read Jun 28, David marked it as to-read Jan 27, Theodore marked it as to-read Jun 08, Heather marked it as to-read Jul 31, Paul Bagosy added it Jan 04, Charlene added it Oct 10, Simon Ashe marked it as to-read Jan 17, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

He eventually agreed, and with Vicinanza and after speaking "to several authors about [the] project", formed a plan for a trilogy with "two hard SF writers broadly influenced by Asimov and of unchallenged technical ability: Greg Bear and David Brin. These books are now claimed by some [10] [11] to collectively be a " Second Foundation trilogy", although they are inserts into pre-existing prequels and some of the earlier Foundation storylines and not generally recognized as a new Trilogy. In an epilogue to Foundation's Triumph , Brin noted he could imagine himself or a different author writing another sequel to add to Foundation's Triumph , feeling that Hari Seldon's story was not yet necessarily finished.

He later published a possible start of such a book on his website. More recently, the Asimov estate authorized publication of another trilogy of robot mysteries by Mark W. These novels, which take place several years before Asimov's Robots and Empire , are Mirage , Chimera , and Aurora These were followed by yet another robot mystery, Alexander C. In , Donald Kingsbury published the novel Psychohistorical Crisis , set in the Foundation universe after the start of the Second Empire.

Novels by various authors Isaac Asimov's Robot City , Robots and Aliens and Robots in Time series are loosely connected to the Robot series, but contain many inconsistencies with Asimov's books, and are not generally considered part of the Foundation series. In November , the Isaac Asimov estate announced the upcoming publication of Robots and Chaos , the first volume in a trilogy featuring Susan Calvin by fantasy author Mickey Zucker Reichert.

The book was published in November under the title I, Robot: In Learned Optimism , [13] psychologist Martin Seligman identifies the Foundation series as one of the most important influences in his professional life, because of the possibility of predictive sociology based on psychological principles. He also lays claim to the first successful prediction of a major historical sociological event, in the US elections , and he specifically attributes this to a psychological principle. In his book To Renew America , U. House Speaker Newt Gingrich wrote how he was influenced by reading the Foundation trilogy in high school.

Paul Krugman , winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences , credits the Foundation series with turning his mind to economics, as the closest existing science to psychohistory. Businessman and entrepreneur Elon Musk counts the series among the inspirations for his career. In the nonfiction PBS series Cosmos: In , the Foundation trilogy beat several other science fiction and fantasy series to receive a special Hugo Award for "Best All-Time Series".

Foundation series - Wikipedia

Heinlein , Lensman series by Edward E. Smith and The Lord of the Rings by J. Asimov himself wrote that he assumed the one-time award had been created to honor The Lord of the Rings , and he was amazed when his work won. The series has won three other Hugo Awards. Foundation's Edge won Best Novel in , and was a bestseller for almost a year. Retrospective Hugo Awards were given in and for, respectively, "The Mule" the major part of Foundation and Empire for Best Novel and "Foundation" the first story written for the series, and second chapter of the first novel for Best Short Story For instance, "The Guide" of the former is a spoof of the Encyclopedia Galactica , and the series actually mentions the encyclopedia by name, remarking that it is rather "dry", and consequently sells fewer copies than the guide; the latter also features the ultra-urbanized Imperial planet Helior, often parodying the logistics such a planet-city would require, but that Asimov's novel downplays when describing Trantor.

It takes place about 2, years after Foundation , after the founding of the Second Galactic Empire. It is set in the same fictional universe as the Foundation series, in considerable detail, but with virtually all Foundation -specific names either changed e. The novel explores the ideas of psychohistory in a number of new directions, inspired by more recent developments in mathematics and computer science , as well as by new ideas in science fiction itself.

The oboe -like holophonor in Matt Groening 's animated television series Futurama is based directly upon the "Visi-Sonor" which Magnifico plays in Foundation and Empire. During the — Marvel Comics Civil War crossover storyline, in Fantastic Four Mister Fantastic revealed his own attempt to develop psychohistory, saying he was inspired after reading the Foundation series.

It's been a while but I'm sure you've made the right connection Asimov was required reading in the 60's. A BBC 7 rerun commenced in July The failure to develop a new franchise was partly a reason the studio signed on to produce The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Michael Wimer was named as co-producer.

This project failed to materialize and HBO acquired the rights when they became available in The "Author's Note" of Prelude to Foundation contains the chronological ordering of Asimov's science fiction books, in which he also said, "they were not written in the order in which perhaps they should be read". Another alternative is to read the books in their original order of publication, since reading the Foundation prequels prior to reading the Foundation Trilogy fundamentally alters the original narrative structure of the trilogy by spoiling what were originally presented as plot surprises.

While not mentioned in the above list, the books The End of Eternity and Nemesis are also referenced in the series. The End of Eternity is vaguely referenced in Foundation's Edge , where a character mentions the Eternals, whose "task it was to choose a reality that would be most suitable to Humanity". The End of Eternity also refers to a "Galactic Empire" within its story. In Forward the Foundation , Hari Seldon refers to a thousand-year-old story of "a young woman that could communicate with an entire planet that circled a sun named Nemesis", a reference to Nemesis.

In Nemesis , the main colony is one of the Fifty Settlements, a collection of orbital colonies that form a state. The Fifty Settlements possibly were the basis for the fifty Spacer worlds in the Robot stories. The implication at the end of Nemesis that the inhabitants of the off-Earth colonies are splitting off from Earthbound humans could also be connected to a similar implication about the Spacers in Mark W.

Tiedemann 's Robot books. On the other hand, these references might be just jokes by Asimov, and the stories mentioned could be just those really written by himself as seen in The Robots of Dawn , where Fastolfe makes a reference to Asimov's Liar! As for Nemesis , it was written after Prelude to Foundation , but in the author's note Asimov explicitly states that the book is not part of the Foundation or Empire series, but that some day he might tie it to the others. Edit this page Read in another language Foundation series.

The Foundation Series First edition dust-jacket of Foundation. Original stories Edit The original trilogy of novels were originally a series of eight short stories published in Astounding Magazine between May and January Foundation trilogy Edit The first four stories were collected, along with a new story taking place before the others, as a fixup published by Gnome Press in as Foundation. Prelude to Foundation Edit Main article: Foundation Isaac Asimov novel. Merging with other series Edit The series is set in the same universe as Asimov's first published novel, Pebble in the Sky , although Foundation takes place about 10, years later.

A military junta takes over the Empire for ten years after Cleon's death, but collapses after imposing a poll tax. The Galactic Empire is well underway into the predicted total collapse.


The Galactic Empire is no more. The dark age of the entire Milky Way has begun. Events of Foundation's Edge 12, Golan Trevize searches for Earth with the hopes that its finding will validate his choosing of Galaxia. Impact in nonfiction Edit In Learned Optimism , [13] psychologist Martin Seligman identifies the Foundation series as one of the most important influences in his professional life, because of the possibility of predictive sociology based on psychological principles.

Overview Edit The "Author's Note" of Prelude to Foundation contains the chronological ordering of Asimov's science fiction books, in which he also said, "they were not written in the order in which perhaps they should be read". First collection, which were all included in The Complete Robot , though it also contains a binding text, no longer in The Complete Robot.

Second collection, which were all included in The Complete Robot. Anthologized in a book with the same title. Contains some minor inconsistencies with later stories. Published in The Complete Robot. Locus Award nominee, [36] 10 [note 1] Forward the Foundation The second Foundation novel although it was the last written by Asimov himself.

Actually, it is a collection of four stories, originally published between and , plus an introductory section written for the book in Locus Award nominee, [39] Another alternative is to read the books in their original order of publication, since reading the Foundation prequels prior to reading the Foundation Trilogy fundamentally alters the original narrative structure of the trilogy by spoiling what were originally presented as plot surprises.

List of fiction employing parallel universes

Tangential books Edit While not mentioned in the above list, the books The End of Eternity and Nemesis are also referenced in the series. Giskard Reventlov , the first robot able to alter human minds R. Hari Seldon , leader of the Psychohistorical movement which creates the Foundation and the Seldon plan; first First Speaker of the Second Foundation traditional , First Minister of the Galactic Empire under Cleon I, after Eto Demerzel Dors Venabili , Seldon's wife and protector, known as the "Tiger Woman" for her physical prowess and swiftness to action, she is eventually revealed to be a humanoid robot like Daneel.

Hober Mallow , the first "Merchant Prince" during the Foundation's "Trader" days Bel Riose , general of the Galactic Empire The Mule , a mutant who was extremely adept at altering human emotions Bayta Darell , Foundation citizen instrumental in the defeat of the Mule. Ebling Mis , thought to be first person to discover the location of the Second Foundation Arkady Darell , granddaughter of Bayta Darell, who theorizes a location of the Second Foundation Preem Palver , a farmer living on Trantor and First Speaker of the Second Foundation Golan Trevize , councilman of Terminus who discovers the secret location of Earth.

The main character of "Foundation Edge" and "Foundation and Earth". He chose Galaxia as the fate of the galaxy. Janov Pelorat , historian, accompanies Trevize. Therefore at least this part of the book would be located after the events of Foundation and Chaos , Foundation's Triumph and the first chapter of Foundation. Retrieved July 28, New England Science Fiction Association. La edad de oro II. From Robots to Foundations.

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Learned Optimism c by Alfred A. In Joy Still Felt: The Autobiography of Isaac Asimov, — Garden City, New York: Of course, you'll remember the holophonor [ Retrieved 11 November An Evening with the Cast of Person of Interest". Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 27 June Retrieved 29 August Retrieved 25 June Retrieved from " https: First edition dust-jacket of Foundation.